Key Difference – mRNA-tRNA vs rRNA
mRNA, tRNA and rRNA are three main typesRNAfound in the cell. RNA is typically a single-stranded molecule consisting ofAdenin, Guanin,Cytosine, SeUracilin its structure. The pentose sugar is theRibosein all RNA nucleotides. RNA is produced bytranscription, using the enzyme RNA polymerase. While each type of RNA varies widely in its function, all three types of RNA are primarily involved in protein synthesis. Thegreater differencemRNA stands for tRNA and rRNA datmRNA carries the coding instructions from aamino acid sequenceof aproteinwhile the specific tRNA amino acids forRibosomesto form itPolypeptide ketaand rRNA joins proteins to form ribosomes.
main areas covered
1.What is mRNA
– Definition, properties, function
2.What is tRNA?
– Definition, properties, function
3.What is rRNA?
– Definition, properties, function
4.What are the Similarities Between mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA?
– Overview of common functions
5.What is the difference between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA?
- Comparison of key differences
Key Terms: Alternative Processing, Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Ribosomes, Proteins, Transcription, Translation, Transfer RNA (tRNA)
What is mRNA
Messenger RNA molecules (mRNA molecules) carry a copy of a gene that codes for a specific functional protein from the cell nucleus to ribosomes. The production of mRNA occurs through a process called transcription. The enzyme involved in transcription is RNA polymerase. In eukaryotes, pre-mRNA molecules are processed into mature RNA molecules by post-transcriptional modifications. Pre-mRNA processing includes 5' capping, editing and polyadenylation. A 7-methylguanosine cap is attached forward to the 5' end. Some mRNA sequence changes are allowed by sequence editing. A poly(A) tail containing approximately 250 adenosine residues is added to the 3' end of the mRNA molecule to protect it from degradation by exonucleases. On the other hand, eukaryotic pre-mRNA consists of both introns and exons. Alternative splicing is another process in which different combinations of exons are spliced together to produce different types of proteins from a single pre-mRNA molecule. Prokaryotic mRNA is capable of producing only one type of protein after translation.
Figure 1: Pre-mRNA processing
Mature mRNA molecules are exported to the cell nucleus through the nuclear poreZytoplasm. The mature mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence of a specific protein in a process calledtranslation. Translation is facilitated by ribosomes in the cytoplasm. The transcription of a DNA sequence into an mRNA molecule and the translation of an mRNA molecule into a protein are said to be the central tenets of molecular biology. The coding region of each mRNA molecule consists ofCodons, there are threenucleotide, representing a specific amino acid of the polypeptide chain. The formation of mature RNA from pre-mRNA is shown inillustration 1.
What is tRNA?
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of host RNA that provides targeted amino acids to ribosomes during translation. Each codon in the mRNA molecule is read byAnticodonthe tRNA to deliver the specific amino acid to the ribosome. Normally, a tRNA molecule consists of about 76 to 90 RNA nucleotides. The secondary structure of tRNA is shaped like a trefoil. It consists of four loop structures known as D loop, anticodon loop, variable loop and T loop. The anticodon loop consists of a specific anticodon that scans the complementary codon in the mRNA molecule.
Figure 2: Transfer RNA
A tRNA molecule also consists of an acceptor stem consisting of a 5'-terminal phosphate group. The amino acid is loaded into the CCA tail at the end of the acceptor stem. Some anticodons base pair with different codons due to unstable base pairing. The secondary structure of a tRNA molecule is shown inFigure 2.
What is rRNA?
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is an important type of RNA that, together with ribosomal proteins, is involved in the formation of ribosomes. The ribosome is the protein-synthesizing organelle in the cell that translates the coding sequence of an mRNA molecule into a polypeptide chain. rRNA synthesis takes place in the nucleus. Two types of rRNA molecules are synthesized as small rRNA and large rRNA. Both rRNA molecules combine with ribosomal proteins, forming a small subunit and a large subunit. The large subunit of rRNA serves as a riboenzyme that catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds. During translation, the small and large subunits combine to form the ribosome. The mRNA molecule is located between the small and large subunits. Each ribosome consists of three binding sites for binding tRNA molecules. These are A, P and E sites. The A site binds to the aminoacyl tRNA. Aminoacyl tRNA contains a specific amino acid. The aminoacyl-tRNA molecule at the P site binds to the growing polypeptide chain. The aminoacyl-tRNA molecule then moves to the E position.
Figure 3: Protein synthesis
Prokaryotes are composed of 70S ribosomes, which consist of a small 30S subunit and a large 50S subunit. Eukaryotes are composed of 80S ribosomes, which consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Protein synthesis is shown inFigure 3.
Similarities Between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA
- Each mRNA, tRNA and rRNA is encoded by the genes in the cell nucleus.
- mRNA, tRNA and rRNA are made of adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.
- Both mRNA and rRNA are single-stranded molecules.
- Both rRNA and tRNA do not interact with DNA.
Difference between mRNA-tRNA and rRNA
mRNA:An mRNA is a subtype of RNA molecule that carries part of the DNA code to other parts of the cell for processing.
tRNA:A tRNA molecule is a small cloverleaf-shaped RNA molecule that carries a specific amino acid in the cytoplasm to the ribosome.
rRNA: An rRNA molecule is part of the ribosome and serves as a translation organelle.
mRNA: mRNA has a linear shape.
tRNA:tRNA is a clover-shaped molecule.
rRNA: rRNA is a globular molecule.
mRNA: mRNA carries the message of the DNA codes for the transcription of polypeptides from the nucleus to the ribosomes.
tRNA:tRNA carries specific amino acids to the ribosome, which aids in translation.
rRNA: rRNA binds to certain proteins to form ribosomes.
mRNA:mRNA consists of codons.
tRNA: tRNA consists of anticodons.
rRNA:rRNA contains codon and anticodon sequences.
mRNA:The size of the mRNA molecule in mammals is typically 400 to 12,000 nt.
tRNA: The size of the tRNA molecule is 76 to 90 nt.
rRNA: The size of rRNA can be 30S, 40S, 50S and 60S.
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are the three main types of RNA in a cell. All three types of RNA have a unique function in protein synthesis. mRNA carries the message of a specific protein from the cell nucleus to the ribosome. tRNA molecules carry specific amino acids to ribosomes. rRNA molecules are involved in the formation of ribosomes, the organelles that facilitate translation. This is the difference between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.
1. "Messenger RNA (mRNA)." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., no Date Site.Available here.July 23, 2017.
2. "TRNA: Role, Function and Synthesis". Learning. com. N.P., n.d. Network.Available here.July 23, 2017.
3. "Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., no Date Site.Available here. July 23, 2017.
1. "Pre-mRNA" by Nastypatty - Same work(CC BY-SA 4.0)overCommonsWikimedia
2. "TRNA-Phe-Yeast and" by Yikrazuul - Own work(CC BY-SA 3.0)overCommonsWikimedia
3. “Protein Synthesis” by Mayera at English Wikipedia(CC BY-SA 3.0)overCommonsWikimedia
Difference between mRNA-tRNA and rRNA | Definition, features, function, similarities and differences? ›
Each of the three types of RNAs performs unique functions and have different structures. mRNA provides a template for gene coding during protein synthesis, tRNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomes, which has to be added to the polypeptide chain and rRNA forms ribosomes along with proteins.What are the differences in the function of mRNA tRNA and rRNA? ›
Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules carry the coding sequences for protein synthesis and are called transcripts; ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules form the core of a cell's ribosomes (the structures in which protein synthesis takes place); and transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein ...What are the similarities between mRNA tRNA and rRNA? ›
Similarities Between mRNA tRNA and rRNA
Each mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are encoded by the genes in the nucleus. The mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are composed of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Both mRNA and rRNA are single-stranded molecules. Both rRNA and tRNA do not work with DNA.
mRNA and tRNA are both types of RNA (ribonucleic acid) present in living organisms. Both are single-stranded polymers of ribonucleotides. Although mRNA and tRNA perform different functions, both have cooperative functions in the synthesis of proteins and both are essential for the purpose of protein synthesis.What are the 3 types of RNA and their functions? ›
- mRNA (messenger RNA): it provides the template for protein synthesis during translation.
- tRNA (transfer RNA): it brings amino acids and reads the genetic code during translation.
- rRNA (ribosomal RNA): it plays a structural and catalytic role during translation.
Each of the three types of RNAs performs unique functions and have different structures. mRNA provides a template for gene coding during protein synthesis, tRNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomes, which has to be added to the polypeptide chain and rRNA forms ribosomes along with proteins.What is the difference between mRNA tRNA and rRNA quizlet? ›
The fundamental distinction between mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA is that mRNA contains the coding instructions for a protein's amino acid sequence. The tRNA transports particular amino acids to the ribosome to build the polypeptide chain, however rRNA is connected with proteins to make ribosomes.What are 3 differences between mRNA and tRNA? ›
mRNA is an unfolded linear molecule while tRNA is a 3-D structure composed of several hairpin loops. Moreover, mRNA has codons while tRNA has anticodons. We can consider this also as a difference between mRNA and tRNA. Also, mRNA sequence length depends on the gene sequence while tRNA rages the length between 76 to 90.How can you tell the difference between mRNA and tRNA? ›
mRNA is a straight chain molecule, whereas tRNA folds back onto itself forming three hairpin loops, making the overall molecule a “three leaf clover” shape. Additionally, with DNA and tRNA, there are often additional amino acids/ proteins attached.What is the function of tRNA? ›
Definition. Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA molecule that plays a key role in protein synthesis. Transfer RNA serves as a link (or adaptor) between the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and the growing chain of amino acids that make up a protein.
One type of RNA is known as mRNA, which stands for “messenger RNA.” mRNA is RNA that is read by ribosomes to build proteins. While all types of RNA are involved in building proteins, mRNA is the one that actually acts as the messenger. It is mRNA specifically that has the recipe for a protein.Do all tRNA have similar structures? ›
Most tRNA species were found to be very similar in structure: the well-known cloverleaf secondary structure and L-shaped tertiary structure. Furthermore, the length of the acceptor arm, T-arm, and anticodon arm were found to be closely conserved.What is the main difference between a mRNA and tRNA quizlet? ›
mRNA makes a template of the code for the protein from DNA. tRNA is a carrier molecule that transfers amino acids to the ribosome.What are the three types of RNA mRNA tRNA and rRNA? ›
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis. They are messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). rRNA forms ribosomes, which are essential in protein synthesis. A ribosome contains a large and small ribosomal subunit.What is the structure and function of the rRNA? ›
ribosomal RNA (rRNA), molecule in cells that forms part of the protein-synthesizing organelle known as a ribosome and that is exported to the cytoplasm to help translate the information in messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein.What are the different types of rRNA? ›
Prokaryotes have 3 varieties of rRNA: 5S, 16S and 23S rRNAs. The 5S and 23S rRNAs are found within the large ribosomal subunit, while the 16S rRNA is located in the small ribosomal subunit. Eukaryotes, on the other hand, have at least 4 flavors of rRNA: 5S, 5.8S, 18S and 28S rRNAs.What are the roles of mRNA rRNA and tRNA in the central dogma? ›
rRNA makes up the bulk of the structure of the ribosome, the cell's protein-building machine. To build a protein, the ribosome reads mRNA. tRNA carries amino acids into the ribosome, and rRNA links them together one at a time. mRNA molecules are usually very long—on the order of thousands of base pairs.What is the difference between mRNA tRNA and rRNA MCAT? ›
Translation requires the input of a messenger RNA (mRNA) template, ribosomes made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and polypetide chains, and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) that carry amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.What is the function of mRNA? ›
The role of mRNA is to carry protein information from the DNA in a cell's nucleus to the cell's cytoplasm (watery interior), where the protein-making machinery reads the mRNA sequence and translates each three-base codon into its corresponding amino acid in a growing protein chain.